Choose FIVE of the following. Be as clear and specific
as possible, and where appropriate cite examples or relevant context. Each answer should be at
least a paragraph (5-7 sentences) long! At least one source for each.
1) Briefly explain the ethical theory of utilitarianism. How does rule-utilitarianism differ from
act-utilitarianism? Which prominent criticism of act-utilitarianism does it attempt to remedy?
2) What is the foundational principle of Kantian deontology? Why do so many find Kantian
deontology to be intuitive? Finally, what key criticism of Kantian deontology does W.D.
Rosss theory of prima facie duties attempt to remedy? How?
3) Hedley and Groveman share a similar concern about the motivation behind recommending
certain treatment options to patients. What is this concern? And how does the ethics of
proxy-decision making factor into their arguments?
4) The practice of IVF at this point in time is quite well established. Why does Johnston, then,
see the care provided to Nadya Suleman as extraordinary? What is dispositional authority and
why is it important here? Does Sulemans dispositional authority over her own embryos
entitle her to demand their implantation? Why or why not?
5) State and explain Bernats paradigm of death. How does this paradigm relate to his
preferred criterion for assessing/judging whether or not brain death has occurred? What
aspects of this paradigm do higher-brain advocates (McMahan) reject?
6) How does Callahan defend the distinction between killing and letting die? State and
explain his three arguments. Which of these arguments would James Rachels strongly reject
7) What, according to Warren, are the five criteria for membership in the community of full and
equal moral right holders? How does she use these criteria to assess both the morality and
legality of abortion?
8) What is genetic abortion, according to Kass? Fully explain his rights-based argument
against the practice of genetic abortion.
9) What paternalistic arguments are often used to oppose surrogacy? What are the moral
objections to surrogacy? How does Steinbock respond in each case? Fully explain her
10) What three values, or essential moral features of our lives, are threatened by genetic
enhancement, according to Sandel. In each case, what is his substantiating evidence?