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Race and Ethnicity

The exam includes a series of short identification questions to answer plus one essay question. You should be able to define each of the identification questions with one good solid paragraph (note: 2 or 3 sentences may or may not be enough).Explanation of Terminology (answer all listed here):-Explain/define the term Racism.-Explain how racism is similar but not the same as prejudice, discrimination, and bigotry (note: you might want to first define all of these terms before comparing/contrasting them with racism).-Explain/define Institutional Racism/ Structural Racism (also known as structural racism, state racism or systemic racism).-Explain how racism, as an ideology, exists in a society at both the individual and institutional/policy level.-Explain/define “ethnocentrism.”-Sociologists, in general, recognize “race” as a social construct. Explain what they mean by this. Are they saying race does not have a biological basis or that race is not real?It is a rare thing to have a discussion, even among friends, where anyone is willing to admit that they are racist (or sometimes have racist thoughts or beliefs). Most people argue I wasnt raised that way or heres my one [insert racial or ethnic minority] friend that I have that stands as evidence that I am not racist.In light of this, some of our authors engaged in research and studied the complex ways by which people hide their racist views and go so far as to engage in contradictory behavior when it comes to race matters i.e. espousing egalitarian individual beliefs but not supporting social policies that would help reduce social inequality experienced by racial and ethnic minority people. These authors argued that racism operates at both the individual/interpersonal level and structural/policy level. To put it another way, they find that some people reject individual-level racist ideology, even as they also reject systemic policies intended to fix institutional racism. Further, some people will argue (as proof of their non-racism) that they dont see color and or/dont use the N-word and/or act out in racially discriminatory ways, even as they also support political candidates and social policies that primarily target & harm racial and ethnic minorities and even poor white people.Using both books – Bonilla Silvas book Racism Without Racists and Diangelos White Fragility – discuss the authors’ arguments about modern-day racism. Why is colorblind racism a problem? Why do people not see the disconnect that occurs (even when it is in their own head) between interpersonal and social structural levels of racism? Why are they not able to engage in honest dialog about the subject. How does race shape the lives of white people? Why might being born white and living in a mostly white local social culture create barriers to understanding? What kinds of deflecting behavior and excuse do they offer to rationalize why blacks and other minorities have difficulty achieving progress? Why do the same people accuse others as being the real racists because they want to talk openly about racial phenomena?